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Berret, J. Lyme disease bacterium does not affect attraction to rodent odour in the tick vector. Parasites Vectors 8, Biron, D. Behavioural manipulation in a grasshopper harbouring hairworm: a proteomics approach. B Biol. Burand, J. Infection with the insect virus Hz-2v alters mating behavior and pheromone production in female Helicoverpa zea moths. Insect Sci. Cator, L.
B Do malaria parasites manipulate mosquitoes? Trends Parasitol. Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria transmission potential. Cornet, S. Malaria infection increases bird attractiveness to uninfected mosquitoes.
Cruz, A. Immune evasion and recognition of the Syphilis spirochete in blood and skin of secondary Syphilis patients: two immunologically distinct compartments.
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PLoS Negl. Dangl, J. Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment. Science , — Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature , — Dawkins, R. The Extended Phenotype. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar. De Moraes, C. Malaria-induced changes in host odors enhance mosquito attraction. Dianne, L. Protection first then facilitation: a manipulative parasite modulates the vulnerability to predation of its intermediate host according to its own developmental stage.
Evolution 65, — Duell, B. Recent insights into microbial triggers of interleukin production in the host and the impact on infectious disease pathogenesis. FEMS Immunol. Fang, Y. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus alters the host preferences of its vector Bemisia tabaci. Flegr, J. How and why Toxoplasma makes us crazy.
Influence of latent Toxoplasma infection on human personality, physiology and morphology: pros and cons of the Toxoplasma —human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis. Fatal attraction phenomenon in humans - cat odour attractiveness increased for Toxoplasma -infected men while decreased for infected women. PLoS Neglect. Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans. Parasitology , — Masterpiece of epigenetic engineering - how Toxoplasma gondii reprogrammes host brains to change fear to sexual attraction.
Fraenkel, G. CrossRef Full Text. Gaskell, E. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii. Guiguet, A. Shared weapons of blood- and plant-feeding insects: surprising commonalities for manipulating hosts. Insect Physiol. Hari Dass, S. Protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates mate choice in rats by enhancing attractiveness of males. Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces predator aversion in rats through epigenetic modulation in the host medial amygdala. Hart, B. Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals.
Did parasite manipulation influence human neurological evolution?
Manipulators live better, but are they always parasites? Fitness costs of induced resistance: emerging experimental support for a slippery concept. Partner manipulation stabilises a horizontally transmitted mutualism. Hofmann, O. Frankfurt: P. Weber Verlag. Hojo, M. Lycaenid caterpillar secretions manipulate attendant ant behavior. Holmes, J. Canning and C. Wright London: Academic Press , — Hoover, K. A gene for an extended phenotype. House, P. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.
Hughes, D. On the origins of parasite-extended phenotypes.
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Hurd, H. Manipulation of medically important insect vectors by their parasites. Ingwell, L. Plant viruses alter insect behavior to enhance their spread. James, W. Potential solutions to problems posed by the offspring ratios of people with parasitic and viral infections. Folia Parasitol. Janeway, C. Immunobiology the Immune System in Health and Disease. Jones, J. The plant immune system. Kagan, I. Aspects in the life history of Neoleucochloridium problematicum Magath, New Comb. Karban, R. Induced Responses to Herbivory. Klein, S. Parasite manipulation of the proximate mechanisms that mediate social behavior in vertebrates.
Parasite manipulation of host behavior: mechanisms, ecology, and future directions. Knell, R. Sexually transmitted diseases of insects: distribution, evolution, ecology and host behaviour. Koella, J. The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum , increases the frequency of multiple feeding of its mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae. Lacroix, R. Malaria infection increases attractiveness of humans to mosquitoes. PLoS Biol. Lafferty, K. Hughes, J. Brodeur, and F. Thomas Oxford: Oxford University Press , — Lagrue, C. Modification of hosts' behavior by a parasite: field evidence for adaptive manipulation.
Ecology 88, — Leroux, L.
Evolution designed by parasites
Levri, E. Parasite-induced change in host behavior of a freshwater snail: parasitic manipulation or byproduct of infection? Libersat, F. Manipulation of host behavior by parasitic insects and insect parasites. Lim, A. Toxoplasma gondii infection enhances testicular steroidogenesis in rats.
Lockhart, A. Sexually transmitted diseases in animals: ecological and evolutionary implications. Luan, J. Suppression of terpenoid synthesis in plants by a virus promotes its mutualism with vectors. Mann, R. PLoS Pathog. Mauck, K. Transmission mechanisms shape pathogen effects on host-vector interactions: evidence from plant viruses. Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying effects of Cucumber mosaic virus on host-plant traits that mediate transmission by aphid vectors.
Plant Cell Environ. Virus infection influences host plant interactions with non-vector herbivores and predators. McLachlan, A. Parasites promote mating success: the case of a midge and a mite. Mongkolsamrit, S. Moore, J. Parasites and the Behaviour of Animals. Mouritsen, K. Parasite-induced trophic facilitation exploited by a non-host predator: a manipulator's nightmare. Nesse, R. Evolutionary approaches to sexually transmitted diseases. Parlog, A. Toxoplasma gondii -induced neuronal alterations.
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Poirotte, C. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma -infected chimpanzees. Poulin, R. The evolution of parasite manipulation of host behavior - a theoretical analysis. Parasitology , S—S Manipulation of host behaviour by parasites: a weakening paradigm? Brockmann, T. Roper, M. Naguib, K. Wynne-Edwards, J. Mitani, and W.
The evolution of host manipulation by parasites: a game theory analysis
Leigh Burlington: Academic Press , — Prandovszky, E. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0. University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in. Not registered? Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages.
Search my Subject Specializations: Select Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Host Manipulation by Parasites David P. More Parasites that manipulate the behaviour of their hosts represent striking examples of adaptation by natural selection. It then sets up home, leeching off the crab's nutrients and turning it into the vehicle that will allow it to reproduce.
Once fully-grown, the barnacle looks more like a soft, pulsating egg yolk. If the crab is female, Sacculina forces it to care for the millions of barnacle larvae as if they were her own. But if the crab is male, it will be feminised in order to do the same thing. Not only is it rendered infertile, it grows a larger abdomen to carry the barnacle's young, its gonads shrink, and it stops developing its fighting claws. Green-banded broodsac Leucochloridium paradoxum.
If you see a snail with two beautiful eye stalks, pulsating with emerald- and olive-green stripes and dappled with charcoal grey flecks capped off with a maroon dab, be impressed. You're not just looking at a pimped-out snail, you're looking at a snail infected with a parasitic flatworm. The green-banded broodsac first squirms its way into the stalks of the snail, so that they look like juicy, pulsing, brightly-coloured caterpillars. This is just the kind of snack nearby birds are in the mood for.
Then the worm manipulates the snail's behaviour. In , Wanda Wesolowska and Tomasz Weslowski of Wroclaw University in Poland found that the infected snails behaved differently from their apparently non-infected counterparts. They positioned themselves in more exposed and better-lit places, situated higher in the vegetation.
This probably makes the snails more conspicuous for foraging birds. View image of Spotted lady beetles carrying ladybird parasite cocoons Credit: Mathieu B. Ladybird parasite Dinocampus coccinellae. This wasp needs a host that will protect its eggs from potential predators. So what better bodyguard than an insect with markings that suggest danger? Ladybirds may seem like the stuff of cartoons and cute lunchboxes, but they can take care of themselves. When disturbed they emit a disgusting poison, and their hard shell with its bright red and black spots warns off predators. But they don't stand a chance against the parasitic wasp, which leaves behind a single egg with one sting.
After the wasp egg hatches, the larva chews through the ladybird's internal tissues before bursting through the abdomen to spin a cocoon between its legs. The ladybird is now a "bodyguard", standing guard over the cocoon. Still alive despite everything, it will thrash and twitch its limbs if a predator approaches. It's not clear why it behaves like this, but it may be triggered by venom left by the larva. Rather unexpectedly, a study found that a quarter of the zombie ladybirds survive the assault.
Emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa. The emerald cockroach wasp has a metallic body that glows emerald with bright crimson markings on two of its legs. Found in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific islands, it is a beautiful insect, but pity the cockroach that crosses its path. It is one-sixth the size of a roach, but that doesn't stop it.
First it delivers a simple paralysing sting. Then it hijacks the roach's mind, injecting an elixir of neurotransmitters into its brain. This turns the roach into a helpless zombie. After a quick suck of recharging roach blood, the wasp chews off the roach's antennae and leads it to its nest like a dog on a lead. There it lays its eggs on the roach's abdomen, and barricades it in with pebbles. But the hapless roach doesn't even try to escape, even though it physically could. It just sits there submissively, as the wasp larva eats it alive.