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Modern scholarship also recognizes the existence of the following varieties: late Heidegger's transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology  see transcendental philosophy and a priori , Maurice Merleau-Ponty 's embodied phenomenology  see embodied cognition , Michel Henry 's material phenomenology also based on embodied cognition ,  analytic phenomenology  see analytic philosophy , J.
Austin 's linguistic phenomenology  see ordinary language philosophy , and post-analytic phenomenology  see postanalytic philosophy. Intentionality refers to the notion that consciousness is always the consciousness of something. The word itself should not be confused with the "ordinary" use of the word intentional, but should rather be taken as playing on the etymological roots of the word. Originally, intention referred to a "stretching out" "in tension," from Latin intendere , and in this context it refers to consciousness "stretching out" towards its object.
However, one should be careful with this image: there is not some consciousness first that, subsequently, stretches out to its object; rather, consciousness occurs as the simultaneity of a conscious act and its object. Intentionality is often summed up as "aboutness. This means that the object of consciousness doesn't have to be a physical object apprehended in perception : it can just as well be a fantasy or a memory. Consequently, these "structures" of consciousness, i. The term "intentionality" originated with the Scholastics in the medieval period and was resurrected by Brentano who in turn influenced Husserl's conception of phenomenology, who refined the term and made it the cornerstone of his theory of consciousness.
The meaning of the term is complex and depends entirely on how it is conceived by a given philosopher.
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The term should not be confused with "intention" or the psychoanalytic conception of unconscious "motive" or "gain". Intuition in phenomenology refers to cases where the intentional object is directly present to the intentionality at play; if the intention is "filled" by the direct apprehension of the object, you have an intuited object. Having a cup of coffee in front of you, for instance, seeing it, feeling it, or even imagining it — these are all filled intentions, and the object is then intuited.
The same goes for the apprehension of mathematical formulae or a number. If you do not have the object as referred to directly, the object is not intuited, but still intended, but then emptily. Examples of empty intentions can be signitive intentions — intentions that only imply or refer to their objects.
In everyday language, we use the word evidence to signify a special sort of relation between a state of affairs and a proposition: State A is evidence for the proposition "A is true. In Husserl's phenomenology, which is quite common, this pair of terms, derived from the Greek nous mind , designate respectively the real content, noesis, and the ideal content, noema, of an intentional act an act of consciousness. The Noesis is the part of the act that gives it a particular sense or character as in judging or perceiving something, loving or hating it, accepting or rejecting it, and so on.
This is real in the sense that it is actually part of what takes place in the consciousness or psyche of the subject of the act. The Noesis is always correlated with a Noema ; for Husserl, the full Noema is a complex ideal structure comprising at least a noematic sense and a noematic core. The correct interpretation of what Husserl meant by the Noema has long been controversial, but the noematic sense is generally understood as the ideal meaning of the act  and the noematic core as the act's referent or object as it is meant in the act.
One element of controversy is whether this noematic object is the same as the actual object of the act assuming it exists or is some kind of ideal object. In phenomenology, empathy refers to the experience of one's own body as another. While we often identify others with their physical bodies, this type of phenomenology requires that we focus on the subjectivity of the other, as well as our intersubjective engagement with them.
In Husserl's original account, this was done by a sort of apperception built on the experiences of your own lived-body. The lived body is your own body as experienced by yourself, as yourself. Your own body manifests itself to you mainly as your possibilities of acting in the world. It is what lets you reach out and grab something, for instance, but it also, and more importantly, allows for the possibility of changing your point of view.
This helps you differentiate one thing from another by the experience of moving around it, seeing new aspects of it often referred to as making the absent present and the present absent , and still retaining the notion that this is the same thing that you saw other aspects of just a moment ago it is identical. Your body is also experienced as a duality, both as object you can touch your own hand and as your own subjectivity you experience being touched.
The experience of your own body as your own subjectivity is then applied to the experience of another's body, which, through apperception, is constituted as another subjectivity. You can thus recognise the Other's intentions, emotions, etc. This experience of empathy is important in the phenomenological account of intersubjectivity.
In phenomenology, intersubjectivity constitutes objectivity i. This does not imply that objectivity is reduced to subjectivity nor does it imply a relativist position, cf. In the experience of intersubjectivity, one also experiences oneself as being a subject among other subjects, and one experiences oneself as existing objectively for these Others ; one experiences oneself as the noema of Others' noeses, or as a subject in another's empathic experience.
As such, one experiences oneself as objectively existing subjectivity. Intersubjectivity is also a part in the constitution of one's lifeworld, especially as "homeworld.
The lifeworld German: Lebenswelt is the "world" each one of us lives in. One could call it the "background" or "horizon" of all experience, and it is that on which each object stands out as itself as different and with the meaning it can only hold for us. The lifeworld is both personal and intersubjective it is then called a "homeworld" , and, as such, it does not enclose each one of us in a solus ipse. In the first edition of the Logical Investigations , still under the influence of Brentano, Husserl describes his position as "descriptive psychology. The first volume of the Logical Investigations , the Prolegomena to Pure Logic , begins with a devastating critique of psychologism , i.
Phenomenology in Perspective
Husserl establishes a separate field for research in logic, philosophy, and phenomenology, independently from the empirical sciences. Some years after the publication of the Logical Investigations , Husserl made some key elaborations that led him to the distinction between the act of consciousness noesis and the phenomena at which it is directed the noemata. What we observe is not the object as it is in itself, but how and inasmuch it is given in the intentional acts.
Knowledge of essences would only be possible by "bracketing" all assumptions about the existence of an external world and the inessential subjective aspects of how the object is concretely given to us. Husserl in a later period concentrated more on the ideal, essential structures of consciousness. As he wanted to exclude any hypothesis on the existence of external objects, he introduced the method of phenomenological reduction to eliminate them. What was left over was the pure transcendental ego, as opposed to the concrete empirical ego.
Now Transcendental Phenomenology is the study of the essential structures that are left in pure consciousness: This amounts in practice to the study of the noemata and the relations among them. The philosopher Theodor Adorno criticised Husserl's concept of phenomenological epistemology in his metacritique Against Epistemology , which is anti-foundationalist in its stance. After Husserl's publication of the Ideen in , many phenomenologists took a critical stance towards his new theories. Especially the members of the Munich group distanced themselves from his new transcendental phenomenology and preferred the earlier realist phenomenology of the first edition of the Logical Investigations.
Existential phenomenology differs from transcendental phenomenology by its rejection of the transcendental ego. Merleau-Ponty objects to the ego's transcendence of the world, which for Husserl leaves the world spread out and completely transparent before the conscious. Heidegger thinks of a conscious being as always already in the world.
Transcendence is maintained in existential phenomenology to the extent that the method of phenomenology must take a presuppositionless starting point — transcending claims about the world arising from, for example, natural or scientific attitudes or theories of the ontological nature of the world. While Husserl thought of philosophy as a scientific discipline that had to be founded on a phenomenology understood as epistemology , Martin Heidegger held a radically different view.
Heidegger himself states their differences this way:. According to Heidegger, philosophy was not at all a scientific discipline, but more fundamental than science itself. According to him science is only one way of knowing the world with no special access to truth. Furthermore, the scientific mindset itself is built on a much more "primordial" foundation of practical, everyday knowledge. Husserl was skeptical of this approach, which he regarded as quasi-mystical, and it contributed to the divergence in their thinking.
Instead of taking phenomenology as prima philosophia or a foundational discipline, Heidegger took it as a metaphysical ontology: " being is the proper and sole theme of philosophy Phenomena are not the foundation or Ground of Being. Neither are they appearances, for, as Heidegger argues in Being and Time , an appearance is "that which shows itself in something else," while a phenomenon is "that which shows itself in itself. While for Husserl we would have to abstract from all concrete determinations of our empirical ego, to be able to turn to the field of pure consciousness, Heidegger claims that "the possibilities and destinies of philosophy are bound up with man's existence, and thus with temporality and with historicality.
However, ontological being and existential being are different categories, so Heidegger's conflation of these categories is, according to Husserl's view, the root of Heidegger's error. Husserl charged Heidegger with raising the question of ontology but failing to answer it, instead switching the topic to the Dasein, the only being for whom Being is an issue. That is neither ontology nor phenomenology, according to Husserl, but merely abstract anthropology.
To clarify, perhaps, by abstract anthropology, as a non-existentialist searching for essences, Husserl rejected the existentialism implicit in Heidegger's distinction between beings qua existents as things in reality and their Being as it unfolds in Dasein's own reflections on its being-in-the-world, wherein being becomes present to us, that is, is unconcealed.
Phenomenology (philosophy) - Wikipedia
Some researchers in phenomenology in particular in reference to Heidegger's legacy see possibilities of establishing dialogues with traditions of thought outside of the so-called Western philosophy , particularly with respect to East-Asian thinking , and despite perceived differences between "Eastern" and "Western". There are also recent signs of the reception of phenomenology and Heidegger's thought in particular within scholarly circles focused on studying the impetus of metaphysics in the history of ideas in Islam and Early Islamic philosophy such as in the works of the Lebanese philosopher Nader El-Bizri ;  perhaps this is tangentially due to the indirect influence of the tradition of the French Orientalist and phenomenologist Henri Corbin , and later accentuated through El-Bizri's dialogues with the Polish phenomenologist Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka.
In addition, the work of Jim Ruddy in the field of comparative philosophy , combined the concept of "transcendental ego" in Husserl's phenomenology with the concept of the primacy of self-consciousness in the work of Sankaracharya. In the course of this work, Ruddy uncovered a wholly new eidetic phenomenological science, which he called "convergent phenomenology. James Moor has argued that computers show up policy vacuums that require new thinking and the establishment of new policies. For the phenomenologist, society and technology co-constitute each other; they are each other's ongoing condition, or possibility for being what they are.
For them technology is not just the artifact. Rather, the artifact already emerges from a prior 'technological' attitude towards the world Heidegger For Heidegger the essence of technology is the way of being of modern humans—a way of conducting themselves towards the world—that sees the world as something to be ordered and shaped in line with projects, intentions and desires—a 'will to power' that manifests itself as a 'will to technology'. However, according to Heidegger this 'pre-technological' age or mood is one where humans' relation with the world and artifacts, their way of being disposed, was poetic and aesthetic rather than technological enframing.
In critiquing the artificial intelligence AI programme, Hubert Dreyfus argues that the way skill development has become understood in the past has been wrong. He argues, this is the model that the early artificial intelligence community uncritically adopted. In opposition to this view, he argues, with Heidegger, that what we observe when we learn a new skill in everyday practice is in fact the opposite. We most often start with explicit rules or preformulated approaches and then move to a multiplicity of particular cases, as we become an expert. His argument draws directly on Heidegger's account in "Being and Time" of humans as beings that are always already situated in-the-world.
As humans 'in-the-world', we are already experts at going about everyday life, at dealing with the subtleties of every particular situation; that is why everyday life seems so obvious. Thus, the intricate expertise of everyday activity is forgotten and taken for granted by AI as an assumed starting point. It is the assumed, and forgotten, horizon of everyday practice that makes technological devices and solutions show up as meaningful. If we are to understand technology we need to 'return' to the horizon of meaning that made it show up as the artifacts we need, want and desire.
We need to consider how these technologies reveal or disclose us. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Phenomenology disambiguation. Edmund Husserl. Max Scheler. John Paul II. Main article: Intentionality. Main article: Intuition. Main article: Noema. See also: Empathy and Intersubjectivity. Main article: Lifeworld. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences, 7 2 Those relating to the achievement of objectives, expectations, projects are called reasons for and those based on history, body of knowledge, experience within the biopsychosocial context of the person are called reasons why 4. The set of reasons for and why refers to typical situations with typical means and purposes. They do not reflect the full flow of consciousness of the other in the social relations, since, for this to occur, it is necessary that this flow occurs entirely, which is impossible From the point of view of the social sciences, the possible understanding of man in the world of life takes place through a subjective perspective of social relations.
The transcendence of this understanding requires the researcher to distance himself from the subject to observe it and to develop a conceptual framework from the objectification of subjective matrix of sense, gathering information about the world of common sense - the typification The idea of typification is one of the most important and representative conceptions of phenomenology.
It favors the apprehension of an anonymous and objective knowledge of the phenomenon, which will unfold from the experiences and subjective and intersubjective experiences 4. The typification refers to a conceptual framework that unites the conscious experiences of a person or a group in the social world. Because it is an objective elaboration, it can be expressed through meaningful language, being recognized and understood by those who experience a similar situation. Therefore, understanding that part of the existential motivation has both a meaning that is subjective - because it was experienced by the subjects - and objective - which refers to a concrete situation that shows itself significant and relevant for those who experience the phenomenon investigated.
The characteristics typified assume that the researcher considers the principles of science to ensure the scientific validity of existing models postulate of logical consistency , the subjective meaning of the action postulate of subjective interpretation and the compatibility between the constructions of the researcher and the experiences of the common sense of social reality postulate of adequacy Nursing has caring as social action, involving acts, behaviors and attitudes that are related to the health-disease process.
The acts performed vary according to care situations and the type of relationship established in them Caring transcends an action performed only by health professionals. It constitutes a natural attitude presented to the human being as a social reality. One takes care of himself, his family, friends, house. One acts naturally before care, as it is an act inherent in the human experience, the most original of interpersonal relations, the remainder being subsidized by it.
The dimension of caring in Nursing is initially experienced in the facticity of human life and it may vary from one person to another. It presents something in common that allows, in different care situations, to group characteristics that allow men to recognize them as such, in view of the fact that they have experienced them preliminarily. Care is an action experienced individually, but immersed in the world of social life.
Phenomenology: Understanding personal perspectives
It happens in interpersonal relations, being signified and resignified from the type of relationship established with the other. Professional care implies a kind of specific social relation among subjects who participate in it. It adds to factual care the technical-scientific dimension that distinguishes it from what is practiced by common sense, besides supporting itself on intersubjectivity, on the body of knowledge and on the biographical situation of the professional caregiver.
The relationship in the action of caring in Nursing involves a social context that expresses different conceptions of health, disease, needs and doing itself by the nurse, which can lead to positive and negative experiences by individuals involved in the promotion, prevention and recovery of health. At the same time, understanding care in Nursing occurs through typification of the action and it is rooted in the socio-historical context of subjects - individual and collective - involved in social relationship.
This typification is constituted through a uniform and homogeneous relation of determinations and social conditions and health, sedimented in experiences brought from the common sense to the professional world.
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Understanding the action of caring will happen in depth as it is guided by the reciprocity of intentions and expectations between the person being cared for and the professional caregiver. The reciprocal perspectives are typical constructions of objects of thought that reflect the understanding of this object and its aspects known to people in the social world 4. Contemporaneous Nursing has Florence Nightingale as pioneer, who established important foundations for professional Nursing in the world, giving rise to the typification of the action of caring for the profession.
However, the typical characteristics of the original care should not be crystallized, taken as final and finished knowledge. The typical action of caring, therefore, is not fixed, being continuously restructured from different situations as a basis for motivations that will lead to new actions of caring. This approach draws on the phenomenological interview for intuitive understanding of the experience, in order to access the experiences of the social world.
This type of interview is a feature that allows the individual who experiences the phenomenon to express the meaning of their action developed in the world of their relationships 9. The interview presupposes a face to face relationship - direct and authentic encounter among the subjects - taken as the most expressive of social relationship 4.
It enables one to remain open and accessible to the intentional actions of another, constituting a we-relation permissible for the flow of consciousness of one to present to the other 4. It should be guided by questions that evoke the motivation, which underlies and drives the action. With this understanding, the thematic content of the questions aims to insert the subject interviewed in the context of his past and present experiences reasons-why and send him to his future reasons-for 4.
Thus, access to the meaning of the action involves a particular way of looking at a particular aspect of a person living, from the internal temporal consciousness that is based on a motivational context 4. The speech of the subjects regarding their motivation is the externalization of their intentions, which are captured by the researcher or by nurses during the interview. The intersubjective understanding through the seizure of the motives of human action structured in the midst of the experience and, therefore, the action that integrates the social relationship are searched.
Careful reading and critical analysis of the content of the speech enable identification and description of the meanings of the action - the categorization - with consequent understanding of the phenomenon investigated. They constitute the so-called second-level constructs, emerging and originated from experiences in the social world 4.
Those categories express the relevant aspects of actions that involve social phenomena as they occur in the social world, and involve both the reflection of the subjects and the researcher's view. Moreover, the meanings are not necessarily mutually exclusive, as some aspects may be present in more than one category since they are interrelated in the experience of the subjects. The organized set of concrete categories of the experience allows the objective construction of the typical action, considered a theoretical construct 9.
Both from the perspective of scientific research and from the foundation for professional care, understanding the typical action in the social world has as a guiding axis the dialogue among the results of the research, the theoretical framework of social phenomenology and scientific evidence related to the topic under study. This triad will enable a theoretically grounded and contextualized view of the phenomenon, unfolding into new perspectives of thinking and doing Nursing.
Thus, the content that constitutes the typification of the subject's or group's action investigated, under the theoretical point of view or action of care, must be interpreted in light of the scientific evidence relating to the topic studied, considering the sociohistorical context that permeates the experience in focus. This dialogical relation is relevant and necessary for better understanding and clarification of the phenomenon investigated. Such appreciation permeates the recognition of the person considering the amount of knowledge and experience acquired over a lifetime, as well as biographical situation in which it she is at the time of care.
That will allow the professional to launch an expanded vision on care, based on the life of the subject and considering the social context in which he is. Such framework values the intersubjective dimension of care and translates as the most original of the relationships among human beings. It is emphasized that the subjects of care in Nursing, both individual and collectively, are embedded in a socio-historical and cultural context that needs to be valued. In this sense, the biographical situation and the body of knowledge available to them are important signs for planning and performance of actions for professional care.
In the research field, this framework brings out the importance of careful thinking from the perspective of relations emanating from it, considering the perspective of those involved in the action of caring in Nursing. Na trilha da fenomenologia: um caminho para a pesquisa em enfermagem. Texto Contexto Enferm. Acta Scien. Bibliometric study on nursing theses and dissertations employing a phenomenological approach: tendency and perspectives.